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The Treaty provides that the entire territory of a Member State is open to observation. Observation flights may only be restricted for reasons of aviation safety and not for reasons of national security. [2] The concept of “mutual aerial observation” was originally proposed to Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin at the 1955 Geneva Conference by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower; However, the Soviets quickly rejected the concept and he slept for several years. The contract was finally signed in 1989 at the initiative of the US President (and former director of the Central Intelligence Agency), George H. W. Bush. The agreement negotiated by then NATO members and the Warsaw Pact was signed in Helsinki, Finland, on 24 March 1992. [2] The United States officially withdrew on November 22, 2020. .